In: Products, Services 17 Sep 2014 Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,

Download free Digital Terrain Models and Clutters here


Europe 25 m



Clutter file (25 m)




DTM 25 m



Digital map dataset link (updated weekly):






In: Products 07 Jul 2014 Tags: , , , , , , , , , ,


What are the TV white-spaces?

TV White Spaces (TVWS) are vacant frequencies made available for unlicensed use at locations where spectrum is not being used by licensed services. This band is currently used by Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) and Program Making and Special Events (PMSE) users.


“White Space technology will work in a similar way to Wi-Fi, which uses a wireless router to send and receive information to other wireless devices. The main difference is that the White Space router – or “master” device as it is known technically – will first need to consult a list of databases hosted online. It will notify one of these databases of its location and update it on a regular basis. The database will then return details of the radio-frequencies and power levels it is allowed to use. This will ensure that the devices do not interfere with existing licensed users of the spectrum, which include Digital Terrestrial Television and wireless microphone users.”


Enhanced Wi-Fi: The majority of current Wi-Fi devices operate in spectrum at 2.4GHz. White Spaces could provide new capacity, while boosting the range of devices, potentially enabling Wi-Fi networks that stretch across towns and cities. This is thanks to the lower frequency of TV White Spaces (typically between 470 and 790MHz).

Rural broadband: White Spaces could be used to provide rural locations with broadband services. In practice, this could be achieved by building a network of transmitters that use White Spaces to link remote houses and villages to larger towns that are already connected to the internet. Trials are currently being undertaken by industry to test this on the island of Bute, Scotland.

Machine-to-Machine Communications (M2M): A relatively new area of innovation called Machine-to-Machine Communications allows information to be exchanged between devices. Many experts believe that in the coming years billions of devices will be able to connect wirelessly and via the internet for a range of applications. White spaces could be used to wirelessly transmit this information, using its additional range to reach deep inside buildings. This could be especially useful for wirelessly measuring utility meters in consumers’ homes – just one of a wide number of potential applications. Other examples include using White Spaces to keep an inventory of stock owned by a business, or making it easier for scientists to conduct research by automating the measurement of different readings.


The UHF TV band (470-790 MHz) and its users


ATDI announces new White-space features in ICS suite.

Since 1997, ATDI supports White-Spaces in ICS telecom (3.5 GHz band, Teledesic and Skybridge projects…). Now, ICS suite allows you to process the complete workflow and publish the data Online.


TVWS calculations and Management with ATDI tools

Calculation method and WSD management (pdf)



ICS suite white-space features:

. DTT coverage
. Reserved channels
. Allotments, Assignments, PSME, International coordination, Protected areas (polygons)
. DTT white-space calculation
. TVWS availability calculation
. Available Spectrum maps
. WSD channel assignment
. WSD to DTT interference calculation
. Data storage:
. Location
. Channel
. WSD class
. Permitted power level
. Online access
White-spaces are managed both locally and in the Cloud thanks to ICS Manager




. DTT protected area calculation

. WSD availability map calculation

. Interference WSDs vs WSDs and WSDs vs DTT

. Import TVWSD availability maps and tiling

. Web service validations

. WSD checking

. Statistics

. Status of data in the Cloud

Cloud service:

. Map tiles (WMTS server)

. Web services to communicate with WSD (location, QoS, Traffic)

. Import WSDs from Cloud (scenarios)


White space map calculation (multi-technologies):

. Devices or Routers vs Licensed service areas (C/I mode)
. Licensed services vs Devices or Routers (IRF and C/I modes)
. Licensed services vs earth Satellite Rx (GSO, NGSO, Constellations)
. Devices vs Devices or Routers vs Routers or Devices vs Routers (IRF mode)
. Devices or Routers vs Polygons or Routes (PFD)

From UKPM files (from 0.01 m to 100 m resolution)

. LTE vs DTT
. WSD vs DTT
. Multiple log-normal signal calculator (Schwartz & Yeh / Fenton-Wilkinson)
. UKPM household automatic update
. Up to 100 000 interferers (base stations) by DTT channel
. Up to 2 000 000 interferers (WSDs) by DTT channels

WSD vs DTT features:

. Large choice of propagation models (outdoor, indoor, mixed outdoor/indoor, Full 3D)
. Multiple resolution maps (from 0.01 m to 1000 m)
. White-space devices: Class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
. Rejection: ETSI EN 301 598 or user defined
. Household distribution and filter
. WSD distribution
. Bandwidth ratio
. User defined C/I required and NFD matrices
. DTT white-space maps
. TVWS availability maps (C/I, permitted power levels)
. WSD interference (WSDs vs DTT receivers and DTT transmitters vs WSDs)
. Spurious emissions
. Interference analysis: Multiple scenarios
. Rx antenna discrimination (ITU-R 419, OET69, User defined) (DTT receivers)
. Automatic DTT selection (up to N+- 15)
. Foreign DTT transmitters are taken into account (BRIFIC online access)
. Offline and Online Worldwide database (Location, Channels, Power levels, WSD classes)
. WSD location by coordinates or addresses
. Export WMAS (Google map, Bing Map, OSM), EPSG:4326…
. Web services

Export data formats:
. Matrices (form 0.01 m to 1000 m resolution)
. Google Earth
. Cloud SQL Azure

- For a given location (address, coordinates, click on map…)
. List of available channels and max power level by channel
- Coverage maps per channel
- Protected maps per channel
- Tx per channels

Cloud Map Storage (Windows Azure):
- For each point:
. List of available channel(s)
- For each channel
. Max power level by WSD class


Platform overview for WSD management









ICS suite:

ICS telecom

ICS manager (+ SQL server)

ICS online (Windows Azure platform)


Map comparison (Spectrum bridge vs ATDI)

DTT protected area:

Spectrum Bridge map (Channel 32 Singapore)

Map comparison (Google vs ATDI)


Google Spectrum TVWS availability map (USA)



ATDI protected area map (Channel 28 Oman – WSD 0.22 W EIRP – 100 m resolution)


White-Space calculation example: Oman Channel 39:

WSD maps (Channel 39 – Oman – 100 143 225 WSD locations from 13 to 23 dBm and from Class 1 to 5  – 3 602 600 DTT receivers - map resolution: 100 m

Scenario: WSD 0.22 W max outdoor, Dynamic 10 dB (from 23 dBm to 13 dBm), Classes 1 to 5, DTT map: all servers, Rejection up to N +/-3 .


DTT map (all channels)


Channel 39 – Protected area (servers)



WSD availability map (channel 39) – ITU-R 452:

Blue area = exclusion zone

Green areas = restricted zones (plus Power level constraints)

Brown area = OK



Available Spectrum Map






DTT protected area maps and WSD availability maps are calculated in ICS telecom.

The WSDB is managed by ICS manager and accessible via Web service.

ICS manager hosts the TVWS availability tile maps (WMTS) and perform real-time checking.

WSD interference are performed every time a new WSD is ON (power sum, log-normal sum).

Start and End “switch ON” periods are managed by the system.

ICS online allows you to display DTT protected area maps, TVWS availability maps, WSD locations (including channels and power levels + info), provides a form to enter new WSD (technical parameters, Class, location…).

DTT maps for all countries using BRIFIC or more accurate data if available (or both: i.e. Brific for borders and operator/regulator data for the target country)…

BRIFIC is accessible online thanks to ICS online and is updated twice a month.

WSD application form

WSDs transactions (IN/OUT): Location, QoS, Traffic, Power levels, Channels…

WSDs storage




Brochure (pdf)

ATDI Presentation – TV White Space Calculation and Database

WhiteSpaces: newsletter


Related ICS telecom functions:
. LTE vs DTT (UKPM and P2MP methods)
. Coordination with aeronautical radionavigation radar in the 2.7 GHz band



In: Products, Resources 16 Jun 2014 Tags: , , , ,

To create the Standard-RM propagation model that is faithful to Fresnel’s theory (for frequencies > 30 MHz), it took more than 20 years of research and development and more than 50 iterations of implementation in our software, which has been verified with hundreds of thousands of measurements.

Standard-RM includes the Fresnel complex integral, diffraction (2D and 3D), Ducting, Troposcattering, Climate, Reflections, Refraction, Scattering…


Since 1988, we there have been many different methods for calculating diffraction that we have implemented in our software (Epstein Peterson, Bullington and Deygout). All these methods have one thing in common: they do not take into account the effects of multiple paths that sum together at a given point at a given frequency.  This aspect can be accounted for in various ways as in the following models:

  • Propagation curves CCIR/ITU (370, 1546) with the notion of effective height
  • Okumura-Hata with the notion of effective height
  • Wojnar or Deygout (94) with FPL (fourth-power law)
  • Durkin (with the slope factor corrections altering the fundamental model)
  • Two-ray plane earth models
  • Longley Rice (ITM)
  • Delta-Bullington
  • Etc.


Recommendation ITU-R P.526-13 offers a method of calculating diffraction “sub-path”, inspired by our different models. In this model, the Fresnel integral treated approximately so it is incomplete, however, it demonstrates that when calculating propagation deterministically, that the Fresnel model is important.


2014 ATDI integrates its model RM-Standard in its software ICS and HTZ.

The version released yet incorporates so far FPL + Deygout diffraction, and we only use this to determine the minimum attenuation. Once we have finished checking the new model with measurements, it will become redundant.


This model is entirely dependent on the input data: model quality and accuracy of emission and reception parameters. We noticed that unlike most models which are more “permissive”, an approximate antenna pattern greatly reduces the correlation. In addition, its sensitivity to the accuracy of terrain data requires new cartographic data, including the need to calculate attenuation due to vegetation with an absorption model.


In conclusion, this model does not give “better” results than another, if it is used with data of moderate quality. It is faithful to the physics of waves. Used with qualified data, we have observed a standard deviation of error <2.5 dB instead of 3.2 / 3.4 dB with previous implementations.



  • End of approximations!
  • A pure model faithful to the geometry of the terrain
  • Allow the true validation of the parameters of a plan



  • Very long computation time
  • Requires an accurate and reliable terrain model
  • Requires the actual station parameters



  • Propagation prediction above 30 MHz
  • A reference model for comparison


Base model:

Fresnel Integrals
Diffraction (GTD, 2D, 3D)
Subpath switching (for compatibility with all the diffraction methods)


Ducting (multi-layers)
Mixed path
Gaz attenuation
Rain attenuation
Slant path
Reflection (2D, 3D)
Clutters and buildings (flat attenuations, dB/km attenuations, mixed diffraction/absorption…)

Outdoor, Outdoor/Indoor, Indoor, 2D 1/2 and 3D terrain models
Coverage calculation, Point to Point and Point to Multi-Points, Path budget
Clutter tunning

Avalaible in ICS telecom, ICS designer, ICS LT and HTZ



The Standard-RM model will soon be released (both formulas and method). Check for further announcements on our website