CONNECTING & DRIVING BUSINESSES – INTERNET OF THINGS, M2M, SMART CITIES, CONNECTED HOMES, CARS, MHEALTH & WEARABLES

IOT

Overview

IoT technologies


DESIGNING AN INTERNET OF OBJECTS NETWORK AT THE STATE OF THE ART



ICS telecom EV is the first radio planning solution supporting all IoT technologies and proprietary standards available on the market. Here are our advanced IoT features:



  • Automated site planning

  • Automated cell optimization

  • Mesh network clustering

  • Traffic & mobility profile editor (end devices)

  • Gateway/Hube/e-nodeB setting parameters (duty cycle, power, bandwidth, antenna...)

  • Traffic modelling (aggregated traffic with related QoS and reliability targets)

  • IoT DL/UL link budget

  • Coverage, Interference, capacity, reliability analysis

  • Geolocation analysis



IoT networks and services are very different from « Classical Networks » in many aspects and especially from a Planning Perspective. 



  • Radio Network Planning

  • Interactive 3D city Models and Urban Information

  • IoT Application platform & cloud-based solutions

  • Services for integrator, operators, public entities: 
    Business & technical consulting

  • Very accurate deterministic propagation model adapted to all IoT standards (LPWAN, IEEE 802.15.4, 3GPP...)

  • Intuitive software interface allows for immediate ease of use


Solution

The value and applications of IoT wireless network for industries and everyday life



There is an undisputed agreement that Internet of things, i.e. the automatic (with no human intervention) collection of data through a wireless network of sensors or actuators and their analysis will make the world smarter and represent a deep brow.


Most experts expect an explosion of connected devices by 2020:  26Bn according to Gartner, 50Bn according to Cisco) up to 80 Bn IDATE. Connected devices will be pervasive in our everyday life.


IoT opens limitless opportunities



  • in the domains of Smart cities to improve the water and energy distribution or metering, maintenance of public transports, make the road safer, or ensure citizens are informed in real-time of bus arrival,

  • for the Industry 4.0 by enabling cognitive maintenance and improving the productivity for all type of machine or engines,

  • for e-health to better treat chronic diseases, particularly heart failure or diabetes,

  • pave the way of the connected vehicle and offer the promise to reduce road mortality by 15% by shrinking the detection time of accidents thanks to EU e-call service that will be installed and all cars starting 1st April 2018,

  • and more sector that may already use Machine to Machine capabilities will also benefit of extended services: logistics, security, payment terminals, agriculture etc.


The first goal will be therefore to secure the connectivity – when required- of a massive number of objects by ensuring network availability all over the nation territory at minimum, and over the continent as needed, and whether the object is located indoor or outdoor, in static position or in move with a quality of service grade (in term of packet loss or latency, uplink / downlink speed) according to the class of data: critical or not, real-time or only for trend analysis, etc.



Radio technologies and frequency bands for IoT networks



There is currently a large panel of wireless technologies available for the transmission of data over long distances. Some LPWAN technologies are proprietary and others are standardized by 3GPP.



  • Classical cellular networks (3GPP): 2G, 3G, 4G, most of which are deployed on frequencies under exclusive authorization. GSM SMS has been mostly implemented so far for M2M applications.

  • Proprietary Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN): LoRa (up to 34.8Kbps, 500KHz bandwidth required and base station offering up to 45km range) , Sigfox (up to 100bps in DL - 600 bps in UL, 100Hz bandwidth and base stations offering up to 50km ranges), Qowisio, Ingenu, Weightless-N, Wireless M-BUS – using proprietary Ultra Narrow Band for Sigfox or Spread spectrum technologies for LoRa that offer the possibilities to significantly reduce number of base stations (downsize factor of 1000), reduce components costs, network opex and extend battery life.

  • 3GPP LPWAN solutions that only require software version upgrade of existing operator mobile network and enabling interoperability:

    • Enhanced Machine Type Communication (eMTC) with a “category 0” and “category 1” modem defined in the 3GPP Release 12 and 13 with the objective to reduced component costs below $10, extend coverage (maximum coupling loss of >156dB), narrowband operation with 1.08Mhz bandwidth requirement and reduced network complexity: transmission speed from 10Kbps to 1Mbps, no spatial multiplexing (i.e. w/o MIMO), no transmission and reception in parallel (Half duplex), objective of battery life of 10 years thanks to Power Saving Mode or Extended DRX cycle.

    • NB-IoT: new radio added to the LTE platform optimized for the low end of the market

    • Extended Coverage (EC) - GSM : EGPRS enhancements which in combination with PSM makes GSM/EDGE markets prepared for IoT



  • Satellite-based solutions currently deployed (e.g. Inmarsat, Iridium, GlobalStar) or in the process of being deployed (eg O3b, OneWeb) operating in the frequency band subject to prior authorization


While classical or 3GPP technologies rely on licensed frequency bands (700Mhz, 800Mhz, 900Mhz, 1800Mhz, 2600Mhz), proprietary LPWAN technologies are using free of access bands such as 868Mhz. While these band do not require access cost, operators should however respect power levels (between 25mW and 500mW) and spectrum occupancy.



Key parameters to consider when designing an IoT network



In an environment where it’s difficult to predict which wireless technology will prevail, where designer need to consider multiple network model and customers expect same quality of service than carrier grade mobile network it is crucial for either consultants, equipment suppliers, network operators or private companies to be able to accurately plan or evaluate the deployment of wireless technologies and/or the impact of spectrum usage on others spectrum stakeholders.


Deploying a successful IoT radio network means being able to take into account a wide variety of parameters, some specific to IoT radio environment such as:



  • Modelling the network in dense urban environment & high-rise buildings and being able to evaluate the signal strength even in indoor locations since it’s where connected objected could be anchored

  • Evaluating the impact of a large number of devices and messages

  • Overcoming the random transmission nature of IoT technologies

  • Taking into account the regulatory requirements such as maximum power and spectrum occupancy

  • Evaluating the potential interference from adjacent bands/technologies



How ATDI solution guarantees your network offers the desired coverage and IoT connectivity



ATDI offers the industry most advanced network planning and optimization software for IoT that predicts with an unmatched precision the effective coverage of base stations and incorporates all kind of standards and wireless radio IoT technologies: 3GPP GSM, UMTS, LTE, NB-IoT, LTE-M, EC-GSM, and upcoming 5G,LPWAN LoRaWAN, Sigfox, Qowisio, Ingenu, Weightless-N, IEEE 802.15.4 etc, broadcast, microwave, satellite, and PMR.


ATDI solution relies on the highest available resolution cartography, take into account 3D urban, suburban and rural environments and integrates in its software more than 25 years of experience on + 50 propagation models – that are continuously analyzed against real radio measurements - to evaluate all kind of attenuation effects and carry out coverage analysis. ATDI core expertise also relies on its capability to put in the equation a myriad of variables and massive calculation processing to complete classical operations such as simulating automatically the coverage according to parameters up to most complex scenarios, from few kHz to 350GHz, with an easy to use interface. ATDI methodology and expertise offers the highest degree of accuracy and precision that others technologies cannot achieve thanks to a 3D map-based deterministic propagation model to fulfill all V/U/S/EHF requirements at the same time: Line of Sight, diffraction, subpath, troposcattering, ducting, absorption, diffuse and partial specular reflections, scintillation, rain, snow, fog, ga, etc, valid for mixed Indoor and Outdoor studies.


Beyond traditional capabilities of radio network planning & optimization software, ATDI solution is shaped to address the specific needs of IoT network design:



  • Prospective planning for automatic site searching and selection

  • Site candidates and site optimization

  • Cluster planning function that is particularly relevant for meshed network scenarios

  • Dedicated Gateway/Hubs/e-nodeB parameters setting (power, bandwidth, duty cycle, antenna patterns, ...)

  • Traffic modelling: aggregated traffic with related QoS and reliability targets

  • Hopping design to minimize latency

  • Traffic & mobility profile editor for end devices

  • IoT Downlink/Uplink link budget

  • Coverage, Interference, capacity and reliability analysis, macro diversity, automatic frequency assignment…

  • Geolocation analysis


Case studies

Designing an IoT mesh network to raise network availability



Challenge


A mesh network architecture can continuously maintain the connectivity between a set of IoT sensors and gateways/hubs and offers the advantage to be scalable and flexible and it’s the reason why it is particularly relevant to IoT networks. The radio-planning of mesh networks should provide the dimensioning of the mesh node in order to achieve the coverage requirements and analyze the links between the nodes in order to optimize the dynamic routing that guarantee minimized latency level and finally build the gateways backhauling.


 


Solution


Cluster assignment functionality of ATDI platform performs a clustering connections between the different IoT devices with constraints such as the distance between two linked devices, the maximum number of devices per station and per cluster, with a way to sort the devices. The connections between two subscribers will be made if the power received is greater than the predefined threshold. Parenting between Subscribers/Clusters and Gateways can be performed by Parenting function, limited to the maximum number of devices allowed. In order to check how many hops are required for each subscriber to reach a Gateway, there is the Hopping report function. ATDI solution finally offers a Prospective planning functionality and add additional repeater nodes to ensure connectivity for all devices that cannot be directly connected to a gateway.



Designing a Smart City Narrow Band IoT network that cater various user requirements



Challenge


NB-IoT network should provide coverage for different use cases with different requirements and challenges. What needs to be appraised: impact of indoor vs outdoor, traffic model and battery life. During a NB-IoT network deployment scenario, most of the candidate sites are likely to be selected from a list of friendly sites (2G, 3G or LTE existing sites) and the task of the RF planner will consist in finding the best candidates and densify the network. In this case the main goal network design phase will be to determine the required number of sites and their location to achieve the target coverage and throughput for different types of subscribers.


 


Solution


To model a use case such as smart metering in deep indoor areas, the ATDI platform Subscriber functions can be used, with additional losses in subscriber parameters. ATDI platform Prospective planning function allows to find the best locations for new sites in case of greenfield and densification scenarios. This function is based on coverage target assumption. Parenting function is based on a population of IoT devices (profiles in term of traffic can be defined by user). This function takes into account DL/UL coverage criteria and traffic assumption. Automatic site searching function will automatically perform the NB-IoT network design taking into consideration the RSRP threshold requirement.


NB-IoT coverage based on different implementation scenario (Stand alone, Inband, Guard band). There are 3 coverage extention (CE) levels (0-2) in NB-IoT with different number of repetitions, which improve coverage (RSRP and SNIR).
Coverage maps for each CE level based on thresholds for coverage improvements analysis and actual throughput, that can be achieved in the area.
Repetition means, that the same data are transmiting several times to improve reliability of receiving signal (improve coverage, but decrease throughput and cell capacity at the same time).
Cell capacity depends on the subscriber distribution, which can use different number of repetitions in the coverage area.


Designing a Lora Network in an unlicensed frequency band



Challenge


Whatever LoRa or NB wireless system - there are RF limitations inherited from the use-case itself. M2M communication networks are P-MP in nature with sensors installed at different floors including basement. These requirements push network planners to adopt 3D digital maps and apply path-specific full deterministic propagation models. LoRa supports multiple spreading factors from 6 to 12. With 12 being the most robust but also the longest in terms of air-time occupancy. Network dimensioning must rely on accurate signal level prediction to work out the SF distribution amongst target End-Points. A GPS-free LoRaWAN geo-location device should be covered by at least 3 gateways to make a time difference of arrival (TDOA) calculation on the received LoRa signal and calculate the position.


 


Solution


ATDI platform comes with a set of full 3D and deterministic propagation models proven in case-studies and validated by field measurements for urban/suburban/rural environment. These models are described as path-specific. Unlike classical models such as Extended Hata which is typically used for macro-coverage predictions and street level mobile receivers. ATDI platform provides SF distribution map based on SINR calculation for link adaptation analysis and target air-time thresholds. Network analysis functions provide instruments to analyze zones with more than 3 gateway diversity for providing geolocation services in LoRaWAN network.


Technologies

Supported thechnologies




  • IoT technology: NB-IoT

  • Standard: 3GPP - Rel.13

  • Frequency (MHz): Licensed

  • Range (m): Up to 11Km

  • Topology: Star

  • Requires hub or gateway: No

  • Alliance: 3GPP


NB-IoT has been designed to satisfy a plethora of use cases and combination of these requirements, but especially NB-IoT targets the low-end Massive MTC scenario with following requirements: Less than 5$ module cost, extended coverage of 164 dB maximum coupling loss, battery life of over 10 years, ~55000 devices per cell and uplink reporting latency of less than 10 seconds.


NB-IoT supports Half Duplex FDD operation mode with 60 kbps peak rate in uplink and 30 kbps peak rate in downlink. Highest modulation scheme is QPSK in both uplink and downlink. As the name suggests, NB-IoT uses narrowbands with the bandwidth of 180 kHz in both, downlink and uplink. The multiple access scheme used in the downlink is OFDMA with 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing.


On uplink multi-tone SC- FDMA is used with 15 kHz tone spacing or as a special case of SC-FDMA single tone with either 15kHz or 3.75 kHz tone spacing may be used. These schemes have been selected to reduce the User Equipment (UE) complexity. NB-IoT can be deployed in three ways. In-band deployment means that the narrowband is multiplexed within normal LTE carrier.


In Guard-band deployment the narrowband uses the unused resource blocks between two adjacent LTE carriers. Also standalone deployment is supported, where the narrowband can be located alone in dedicated spectrum, which makes it possible for example to refarm the GSM carrier at 850/900 MHz for NB-IoT. All three deployment modes are meant to be used in licensed bands.


The maximum transmission power is either 20 or 23 dBm for uplink transmissions, while for downlink transmission the eNodeB may use higher transmission power, up to 46 dBm depending on the deployment.




  • IoT technology: LoRaWAN

  • Standard: LPWAN

  • Frequency (MHz):
    150MHz-1GHz (lots of options)

  • Range (m): Up to 15Km

  • Topology: Star

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: LoRaWAN alliance


LoRaWAN is an alliance focused on creating a LPWAN technology for IoT devices. LoRa uses spread-spectrum technology that lets the LoRa chip decide the best spectrum to use for data rates, interference, and battery life.


It's strongly adopted and deployed, with multiple vendors selling proven LoRa hardware. Because it's relatively inexpensive to cover a new area with LoRa, it's a good technology choice for LPWAN IoT products that need to be placed in areas without cell service.


 




  • IoT technology: Sigfox

  • Standard: LPWAN

  • Frequency (MHz):
    900MHz (US) - 868 MHz (EU)

  • Range (m): Up to 15Km

  • Topology: Star

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Proprietary


Sigfox uses Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) radio technology and operates in the unlicensed bands (ISM). Radio messages handle by the Sigfox network are small (12-bytes payload in uplink, 8 bytes in uplink) thanks to lightweight protocol. Sigfox uses 200 kHz of the publicly available and unlicensed bands to exchange radio messages over the air (868 to 869 MHz and 902 to 928 MHz depending on regions).


Sigfox uses Ultra Narrow Band (UNB) technology combined with DBPSK and GFSK modulation. Each message is 100 Hz wide and transferred at 100 or 600 bits per second data rate, depending on the region. The transmission is unsynchronized between the device and the network.


The device broadcasts each message 3 times on 3 different frequencies (frequency hopping). The base stations monitor the spectrum and look for UNB signals to demodulate. 




  • IoT technology: LTE Cat-M1

  • Standard: 3GPP - Rel.13

  • Frequency (MHz): 1,4MHz

  • Range (m): Up to 11Km

  • Topology: Star

  • Requires hub or gateway: No

  • Alliance: 3GPP


Should be deployable on existing LTE networks without hardware upgrades. That means the Verizon and AT&T could cover most of the US with LTE M1 with just a software upgrade (and both have announced plans to do just that).


M1 has a high data rate, but devices are capable of sleeping to reduce power. We don't know what the power consumption will look like until we get our hands on a working M1 radio, but watch this technology closely.


It's a major threat to LoRa and SigFox, which require the installation of new radio towers to deploy coverage. It could be a very good choice for products that target massive areas like nations, states, or cities.




  • IoT technology: ISA 100.11a

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.4

  • Frequency (MHz): 2.4 GHz
    ISM band

  • Range (m): Up to 100-200m

  • Topology: “All-in-One” Topo., Distributed, Multiple Gateways

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: International Society of Automation (ISA)


This ISA standard is intended to provide reliable and secure wireless operation for non-critical monitoring, alerting, supervisory control, open loop control, and closed loop control applications.


It defines the protocol suite, system management, gateway, and security specifications for low-data-rate wireless connectivity with fixed, portable, and moving devices supporting very limited power consumption requirements.


The application focus is to address the performance needs of applications such as monitoring and process control where latencies on the order of 100 ms can be tolerated, with optional behavior for shorter latency.




  • IoT technology: SmartMesh WirelessHART (IEEE 802.15.4 )

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.4

  • Frequency (MHz): 2.4 GHz
    ISM band

  • Range (m): Around 225m

  • Topology: Mesh topology

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: none


WirelessHART is designed for the industrial environments, where power, reliability, resilience and scalability low are key, making them well suited for general industrial applications as well as WirelessHART-specific designs.




  • IoT technology: EnOcean

  • Standard: n/a

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    - 868 MHz according to R&TTE regulation EN 300220
    - 902 MHz according to FCC/IC-specification
    - 928 MHz according to ARIB specification

  • Range (m): Up to 30m in buildings and 300m in free field

  • Topology: Mesh topology

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: EnOcean Alliance


Battery-free operation promises a long device life. It's a very interesting technology that we haven't had a chance to play with, but we follow the company closely.


EnOcean can be prototyped with a raspberry pi which lowers development costs.


EnOcean is a good technology choice for products targeted at the commercial building that should have low maintenance costs.




  • IoT technology: Z-Wave

  • Standard: Z-Wave technology

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    - 865.2 MHz (India)
    - 868.1 MHz (Malaysia)
    - 868,42-869,65MHz (EU)
    - 868,4 MHz (China/Korea)
    - 869MHz (Russia)
    - 908.4-916MHz (US)
    - 919,8MHz (Honk-Kong)
    - 921,4-919,8MHz (Australia)
    - 922.0-926.0 MHz (Japan)

  • Range (m): From 30 to 200m

  • Topology: Mesh topology

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Z-Wave Alliance


Z-Wave uses a low-power, wireless radio embedded or retrofitted into home electronics and appliances, such as lighting, access control, entertainment systems, HVAC and refrigerators, remote controls, smoke alarms and intrusion sensors.


Z-Wave operates in the sub-GHz frequency range at 900 MHz. Each Z-Wave network may include up to 232 nodes and consists of two sets of nodes: controllers and slave devices. Nodes may be configured to retransmit the message in order to guarantee connectivity in a multipath environment inside a residential house.


Each Z-Wave network is identified by a network ID, and each device is further identified by a node ID. Nodes with different network IDs cannot communicate with one another. Each node (device) in the mesh networks can relay messages using a routing technique.


A node that could not be reached by the controller, the message is relay through an intermediate node. In the illustration below, when there are too many obstacle between the master bedroom toilet switch (node B) to the Z-Wave controller (node X), the control signal could flow through the master bedroom light switch (node C).




  • IoT technology: 6LoWPAN

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.4

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    2.4 GHz - ISM band

  • Range (m): Up to 120m

  • Topology: Mesh topology

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: IEEE


6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. 6LoWPAN is a low-power wireless mesh network where every node has its own IPv6 address, allowing it to connect directly to the Internet using open standards.


6LoWPAN is a promising alternative to other mesh network technologies. Because it's based on IPV6 addressing, it's relatively simple for 6LoWPAN devices to communicate with other IoT networks by building a bridge.


For example, a 6LoWPAN to Wi-Fi bridge is simpler to produce and operate than a Zigbee hub. In theory, the 6LoWPAN devices would have almost direct access to the Wi-Fi devices. 6LoWPAN is another standard that's great in specific applications.


We recommend it for products targeted at the home or commercial buildings that need to communicate with other products or systems.




  • IoT technology: Weightless (W)

  • Standard: LPWAN

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    White-Spaces, 740-790MHz

  • Range (m): Up to 5km

  • Topology: Star

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Weightless SIG
    Board Members


Weightless-W open standard is designed to operate in TV white space (TVWS) spectrum. For one, the rules and regulations for utilizing TVWS for IoT vary, and it isn’t available everywhere.


Also, end nodes are typically designed to operate only in a small part of the spectrum, and it’s simply impossible to build a small antenna that can go anywhere from 400 MHz to 800 MHz In one city you might have a 500 MHz channel available, while in another you might have a 700 MHz one available, and the RF system cannot adapt to accommodate both of them (antennas, front ends, etc.).


Therefore, TVWS sounds good in theory, but can be lacking when it comes to application. TVWS aside, the Weightless group uses a lot of pretty sophisticated modulation for the Weightless-W standard, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), with spreading codes that allow for a large range of link budgets.


Together, these modulations provide an interesting service layer with really high data rates, which makes it a very interesting standard. Weightless-W is ideal for use in the smart oil and gas sector, because there is likely TVWS available.




  • IoT technology: Weightless (N)

  • Standard: LPWAN

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    868-915MHz

  • Range (m): Up to 5km

  • Topology: Star

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Weightless SIG
    Board Members


The Weightless-N open standard is based on a low power wide area (LPWAN) star network architecture. It operates in sub-GHz spectrum using ultra narrow band (UNB) technology.


Weightless-N offers a claimed range of several kilometres even in urban environments. Very low power consumption provides for long battery life from small conventional cells and minimal terminal hardware and network costs.


Weightless-N is designed around a differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK) digital modulation scheme to transmit within narrow frequency bands using a frequency hopping algorithm for interference mitigation.


It provides for encryption and implicit authentication using a shared secret key regime to encode transmitted information via a 128 bit AES algorithm. The technology supports mobility with the network automatically routing terminal messages to the correct destination.


Multiple networks, typically operated by different companies, are enabled and can be co-located. Each base station queries a central database to determine which network the terminal is registered to in order to decode and route data accordingly.




  • IoT technology: Weightless (P)

  • Standard: Open standard

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    169MHz / 433MHz
    470MHz / 780MHz
    868MHz / 915MHz / 923MHz

  • Range (m): Up to 2km

  • Topology: Star

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Weightless SIG
    Board Members


Weightless-P is an ultra-high performance LPWAN connectivity technology for the Internet of Things. It will use a narrow band modulation scheme offering a bidirectional communications capability to enable unrivalled quality of service (QoS) and add on functionality.


The Standard will provide fully acknowledged 2-way communications offering both uplink and downlink capabilities and best in class QoS required for the stringent industrial IoT sector.


Key characteristics:



  • FDMA+TDMA in 12.5kHz narrow band channels offer optimal capacity for uplink-dominated traffic from a very large number of devices with moderate payload sizes

  • Operates over the whole range of license-exempt sub-GHz ISM/SRD bands for global deployment: 169/433/470/780/868/915/923MHz

  • Flexible channel assignment for frequency re-use in large-scale deployments

  • Adaptive data rate from 200bps to 100kbps to optimize radio resource usage depending on device link quality

  • Transmit power control for both downlink and uplink to reduce interference and maximize network capacity

  • Time-synchronized base stations for efficient radio resource scheduling and utilisation

  • Fully acknowledged communications

  • Auto-retransmission upon failure

  • Frequency and time synchronisation

  • Supports narrowband channels (12.5KHz) with frequency hopping for robustness to multi-path and narrowband interference

  • Channel coding

  • Supports licensed spectrum operation


Weightless-N is designed around a differential binary phase shift keying (DBPSK) digital modulation scheme to transmit within narrow frequency bands using a frequency hopping algorithm for interference mitigation. It provides for encryption and implicit authentication using a shared secret key regime to encode transmitted information via a 128 bit AES algorithm.


The technology supports mobility with the network automatically routing terminal messages to the correct destination. Multiple networks, typically operated by different companies, are enabled and can be co-located. Each base station queries a central database to determine which network the terminal is registered to in order to decode and route data accordingly.




  • IoT technology: ZigBee PRO

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.4

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    Operates on unlicensed bands:
    - ISM 2.4 GHz at 250 Kbps
    - 868 MHz at 20 Kbps
    - 915 MHz at 40 Kbps

  • Range (m): From 30 to 100m

  • Topology: Star, Cluster Tree, Mesh

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: ZigBee Alliance
    (Comcast, Kroger, Samsung, TI)


ZigBee PRO networks are composed of several device types: ZigBee Coordinator, ZigBee Routers and ZigBee End Devices. Coordinators control the formation and security of networks. Routers extend the range of networks.


End devices perform specific sensing or control functions. Manufacturers often create devices that perform multiple functions, for example a device controls a light fixture and also routes messages to the rest of the network.


With the enhanced ZigBee 2012 specification, ZigBee PRO gains an new optional feature: Green Power. The Green Power feature of ZigBee PRO allows battery-less devices to securely join ZigBee PRO networks.


It is the most eco-friendly way to power ZigBee products such as sensors, switches, dimmers and many other devices. These devices can now be powered just by using widely available, but often missed sources of energy like motion, light, vibration, to name a few.


The energy used to flip a typical light switch via common energy harvesting techniques, is powerful enough to generate and send commands through a ZigBee PRO 2012 network.




  • IoT technology: ZigBee RF4CE

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.4

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    Operates on unlicensed bands:
    - ISM 2.4 GHz at 250 Kbps
    - 868 MHz at 20 Kbps
    - 915 MHz at 40 Kbps

  • Range (m): From 30 to 100m

  • Topology: Star, Cluster Tree, Mesh

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: ZigBee Alliance
    (Comcast, Kroger, Samsung, TI)


The ZigBee RF4CE network is composed of two types of device: a target node and a controller node. A target node has full PAN coordinator capabilities and can start a network in its own right.


A controller node can join networks started by target nodes by pairing with the target. Multiple remote controls (RC) PANs form an RC network and nodes in the network can communicate between RC PANs.


In order to communicate with a target node, a controller node first switches to the channel and assumes the PAN identifier of the destination RC PAN.


It then uses the network address, allocated through the pairing procedure, to identify itself on the RC PAN and thus communicate with th desired target node.




  • IoT technology: ZigBee
    Multi-Protocol

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.4

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    Operates on unlicensed bands:
    - ISM 2.4 GHz at 250 Kbps
    - 868 MHz at 20 Kbps
    - 915 MHz at 40 Kbps

  • Range (m): From 30 to 100m

  • Topology: Star, Cluster Tree, Mesh

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: ZigBee Alliance
    (Comcast, Kroger, Samsung, TI)


ZigBee is a technology of data transfer in wireless network. It also can be described as a wireless technology developed as an open global standard to address the unique needs of low-cost, low-power wireless M2M networks.


ZigBee has a low energy consumption and its designed for multichannel control systems, alarm system and lighting control. It operates on IEEE 802.15.14 physical radio specification and operates in unlicensed bands. It is also more economical than Wi-Fi and Bluetooth which makes it simpler.


The ZigBee network layer support star and tree networks and mesh networking. It ensures that networks remain operable in the conditions of a constantly changing quality between communication nodes. In mesh and tree topologies, the ZigBee network is extended with several routers where coordinator is responsible for staring them.


They allow any devices to communicate with any other adjacent node for providing redundancy to the data. If any node fails, the information is routed automatically to other device by these topologies.


In star topology, the network consists of one coordinator responsible for initiating and managing the devices over a network. All devices of the protocol can interact because it has a unified standard of data transfer. 




  • IoT technology: Bluetooth
    Class 1

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.1

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    2.4 GHz ISM Band

  • Range (m): 100m

  • Topology: n/a

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Bluetooth Special Interest Group (3k members)



  • Created instantly and automatically between Bluetooth devices which are in the same area

  • One master device and others as slaves

  • Slaves can not directly send data to each others

  • All traffic must go through the master 35

  • Up to 7 active slaves


 


Technical characteristics:



  • Low Power wireless technology

  • Creating PANs (Personal area networks)

  • Use frequency-hopping spread spectrum




  • IoT technology: Bluetooth
    Class 2

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.1

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    2.4 GHz ISM Band

  • Range (m): 10m

  • Topology: n/a

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Bluetooth Special Interest Group (3k members)



  • Created instantly and automatically between Bluetooth devices which are in the same area

  • One master device and others as slaves

  • Slaves can not directly send data to each others

  • All traffic must go through the master 35

  • Up to 7 active slaves


 


Technical characteristics:



  • Low Power wireless technology

  • Creating PANs (Personal area networks)

  • Use frequency-hopping spread spectrum




  • IoT technology: Bluetooth
    Class 3

  • Standard: IEEE 802.15.1

  • Frequency (MHz): 
    2.4 GHz ISM Band

  • Range (m): 1m

  • Topology: n/a

  • Requires hub or gateway: Yes

  • Alliance: Bluetooth Special Interest Group (3k members)



  • Created instantly and automatically between Bluetooth devices which are in the same area

  • One master device and others as slaves

  • Slaves can not directly send data to each others

  • All traffic must go through the master 35

  • Up to 7 active slaves


 


Technical characteristics:



  • Low Power wireless technology

  • Creating PANs (Personal area networks)

  • Use frequency-hopping spread spectrum


LoRa - Sigfox - NB-IoT - Mesh - Clustering - Smart Grid - LPWA